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«Резолюция о важнейших достижениях и историческом опыте КПК за сто лет борьбы»
ЧУВСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ ИСТОРИИ
- Mistakes were made such as the Great Leap Forward and the people's commune movement, and the scope of the struggle against Rightists was also made far too broad.
- Comrade Mao Zedong's theoretical and practical errors concerning class struggle in a socialist society became increasingly serious, and the Central Committee failed to rectify these mistakes in good time. Under a completely erroneous appraisal of the prevailing class relations and the political situation in the Party and the country, Comrade Mao Zedong launched and led the Cultural Revolution. The counter-revolutionary cliques of Lin Biao and Jiang Qing took advantage of Comrade Mao Zedong's mistakes, and committed many crimes that brought disaster to the country and the people, resulting in ten years of domestic turmoil which caused the Party, the country, and the people to suffer the most serious losses and setbacks since the founding of the People's Republic. This was an extremely bitter lesson.
- The late 1980s and early 1990s witnessed the demise of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern European countries. In the late spring and early summer of 1989, a severe political disturbance took place in China as a result of the international and domestic climates at the time, and was egged on by hostile anticommunist and anti-socialist forces abroad. With the people's backing, the Party and the government took a clear stand against the turmoil, defending China's socialist state power and safeguarding the fundamental interests of the people.
КУЛЬТУРА И ИДЕОЛОГИЯ
- Ideals and convictions are like essential nutrients; without them, we would become frail and susceptible to corruption, greed, degeneracy, and decadence.
- Only socialism could save China, and only socialism could develop China.
- Our continued success in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times has enabled Marxism to take on a fresh face in the eyes of the world, and significantly shifted the worldwide historical evolution of and contest between the two different ideologies and social systems of socialism and capitalism in a way that favors socialism.
- Marxism is the fundamental guiding ideology upon which our Party and our country are founded and thrive. Marxist theory is not a dogma, but a guide to action; it must develop with the evolution of practice, and only by adapting to the Chinese context can it take root in our country and gain a firm place in Chinese people's hearts. The fundamental reason why the Party has been able to lead the people through painstaking searches, setbacks, and pioneering efforts to accomplish enormous tasks that were inconceivable for any other political force in China is its commitment to the following: freeing minds, seeking truth from facts, advancing with the times, and applying a realistic and pragmatic approach; adapting the basic tenets of Marxism to China's specific realities and China's fine traditional culture; abiding by the principle that practice is the sole criterion for testing truth; and grounding all its efforts in reality. Furthermore, the Party has provided prompt answers to the questions of our times and our people, and kept adapting Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times. As Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out, the great social transformations that contemporary China has undergone are not a natural continuation of our country's historical and cultural traditions, not a mechanical application of the templates designed by authors of Marxist classics, nor a copy of the socialist practice in other countries or foreign models of modernization.
- Learning lessons from successes and failures in political development both at home and abroad, the Party has become deeply aware of the following: to have full confidence in the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics… we must ensure that the political system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is deeply rooted in China; and mechanical copying of the political systems of other countries will get us nowhere, and could potentially lead our country to ruin.
- Independence is the essence of China's national spirit, and it is a major principle for building our Party and our country. We must follow our own path－this is the historical conclusion our Party has drawn from its endeavors over the past century. Throughout human history, no nation or country has ever become strong and prosperous by relying on external forces, indiscriminately copying the models of other countries, or blindly following in others' footsteps. Those who have attempted to do so have either suffered inevitable defeat or been reduced to vassals of others.
- We must remain on guard against the erosive influence of Western trends of political thought, including the so-called constitutionalism, alternation of power between political parties, and separation of powers.
- Misguided ideas have often cropped up, such as money worship, hedonism, ultra-individualism, and historical nihilism, online discourse has been rife with disorder, and certain leading officials have demonstrated ambiguity in their political stance and a lack of fighting spirit. These phenomena all have a serious impact on people's thinking and the environment for public discourse. The Party has maintained an accurate perspective on the trends of collisions taking place worldwide between different ideas and cultures, as well as of the profound changes in Chinese people's ways of thinking. It has stressed that ideological work shapes the collective mind of a country and forges the soul of a nation, and that confidence in one's culture, which is a broader, deeper, and more fundamental form of self-confidence, is the most essential, profound, and enduring source of strength for the development of a country and a nation. Without a thriving culture and firm confidence in it, the Chinese nation cannot achieve rejuvenation.
- We must have a firm hold on leadership in ideological work, develop socialist ideology that has the power to unite and inspire the people, and build China into a country with a strong socialist culture.
- The Party puts heavy emphasis on developing and creating new means of communication. It has promoted integrated development of media, and worked to strengthen the penetration and credibility of the media and its ability to guide and influence. The Central Committee has made it clear that failure in the cyberspace domain will spell disaster for the Party's long-term governance. The Party therefore attaches great importance to the Internet as the main arena, battleground, and frontline of the ideological struggle.
- The Central Committee has stressed that China's fine traditional culture is a prominent strength of our nation that enables us to gain a firm footing amidst global cultural interaction. We must adapt to new conditions so that we can carry on our traditional culture in the new era. For this purpose, we have launched projects to pass on and develop our fine cultural traditions, promoted their creative transformation and development, raised public awareness of the importance of preserving our cultural heritage, and stepped up preservation efforts.
- In line with the Party's basic policy on religious affairs, we have upheld the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and provided active guidance for the adaptation of religions to socialist society.
ПОЛИТИКА И СТИЛЬ РАБОТЫ
- Comrade Deng Xiaoping once said, "When everything has to be done by the book, when thinking turns rigid and blind faith is the fashion, it is impossible for a party or a nation to make progress. Its life will cease and that party or nation will perish."
- Reform is always ongoing and can never be completed, and halting or reversing course would get us nowhere.
- We have also faced serious problems such as laws being ignored or not being strictly enforced, lack of judicial impartiality, and violations of the law going unpunished, while judicial corruption occurring from time to time. Some judicial and law-enforcement personnel have bent the law for personal gain, or even provided shelter for criminals. These phenomena have seriously undermined the authority of the law, and had a negative impact on social fairness and justice. The Party is deeply aware that power is a double-edged sword. If it is wielded in accordance with the law and rules, it can bring benefit to the people, but if it is abused, it will invariably bring disaster to the country and the people. The Central Committee has stressed that when the rule of law prevails, the country will prosper, but should it weaken, the country will descend into chaos.
- The Party has strengthened its leadership systems. It has improved the institutions for Party leadership over the people's congresses, the government, the CPPCC, the supervisory, judicial, and procuratorial organs of the state, the armed forces, people's organizations, enterprises and public institutions, primary-level people's organizations for self-governance, and social organizations, thereby ensuring that the Party plays its role of providing leadership in all these organizations.
- The strong leadership of the Party is the fundamental reason why the Chinese people and Chinese nation have been able to transform their fate in modern times and achieved the great success we see today. Both the facts of history and the reality of today prove that without the Communist Party of China, there would be no new China and no national rejuvenation.
- No political consideration is more important than the people; no force is more powerful than justice. The Party's greatest political strength is its close ties with the people, while the biggest potential danger it faces as a governing party is becoming distanced from them. The Party represents the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. It has no special interests of its own, nor has it ever represented the interests of any individual interest group, any power group, or any privileged stratum. This is the fundamental reason why the Party has maintained its inviolable strength. We will remain committed to the Party's fundamental purpose of wholeheartedly serving the people, adhere to the Party's mass line, and always be aware that this country is its people and the people are the country. We will do everything for the people and rely on them in everything we do, exercise governance on behalf of the people and on the basis of their support, and stick to the notion that development is for the people, depends on the people, and its fruits should be shared by the people… Any attempt to divide the Communist Party of China from the Chinese people or to set the Chinese people against the Communist Party of China is bound to fail.
ПАРТИЙНАЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНА И КАДРОВЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
- …our Party comes from the people, has its roots among the people, and is dedicated to serving the people. Once the Party becomes disengaged from the people, it will lose its vitality. To exercise strict self-governance in all respects, we must first address issues concerning Party conduct that the people are strongly concerned about.
- There have remained many problems within the Party with respect to upholding its leadership such as a lack of clear awareness and vigorous action as well as weak, ineffective, diluted, and marginalized efforts in implementation. In particular, the Central Committee's major decisions and plans were not properly executed as some officials selectively implemented the Party's policies or even feigned agreement or compliance and did things their own way.
- Some officials engaged in cronyism and ostracized those outside of their circle; some formed self-serving cliques; some anonymously lodged false accusations and fabricated rumors; some sought to buy popular support and rig elections in their favor; some promised official posts and lavished praise on each other for their promotions; some did things their own way and feigned compliance with policies while acting counter to them; and some got too big for their boots and made presumptuous comments on the decisions of the Central Committee. Such misconduct interwoven with political and economic issues led to a startling level of corruption that damaged the Party's image and prestige and severely undermined relations between the Party and the people and between officials and the people, arousing the discontent and indignation of many Party members, officials, and members of the public.
- …prevent self-centered behavior, decentralism, liberalism, departmentalism, and the "nice-guy" mentality… to be loyal to the Party, obey its command, and fulfill their duties to it.
- A set of criteria for good officials, which include firm convictions, devotion to serving the people, a strong and pragmatic work ethic, a willingness to take responsibility, and a commitment to being clean and honest. In appointing officials, the Party has adopted a rational approach with a greater emphasis on political integrity. It has adhered to the principle of selecting officials on the basis of both integrity and ability, with greater weight given to the former, and on the basis of merit regardless of background, and it is intent on appointing those who are dedicated, impartial, and upright. The Party has opposed the selection of officials solely on the basis of votes, assessment scores, GDP growth rates, or age, or through open popularity contests.
- It has conducted four forms of oversight over discipline compliance [The four forms are: 1) criticism and self-criticism activities and oral and written inquiries which are to be conducted regularly, to ensure that those who have committed minor misconduct are made to "redden and sweat"; 2) light penalties and minor organizational adjustments to official positions, which are to be applied in the majority of cases; 3) heavy penalties and major adjustments to official positions, which are to be applied in a small number of cases; and 4) investigation and prosecution, which are to be undertaken in a very small number of cases involving serious violations of discipline and suspected criminal activity.]
- The Central Committee has stressed that corruption is the greatest threat to the Party's long-term governance. The fight against corruption is a major political struggle that the Party cannot and must not lose. If we let a few hundred corrupt officials slip through the cracks, we would let down all 1.4 billion Chinese people. We must confine power to an institutional cage and ensure that powers are properly defined, standardized, constrained, and subject to oversight in accordance with discipline and the law.
- Our traditional growth model could no longer be sustained in the face of a complex situation in which we must deal with a slowdown in economic growth, make painful structural adjustments, and absorb the effects of previous economic stimulus policies all at once.
- expanding domestic demand as a strategic priority
- The Party has been committed to the innovation-driven development strategy. It has made self-reliance in science and technology the strategic pillar for the country's development and developed a new system for mobilizing the resources nationwide for this purpose.
- The Central Committee is keenly aware that opening the door brings progress, while closing it leaves one behind. For China's development to gain the upper hand, seize the initiative, and have a good future, it is essential that we follow the tide of economic globalization, leverage the strengths of China's massive market, and pursue a more proactive opening up strategy.
- By adjusting excessive income, prohibiting illicit income, increasing the income of low-income groups, and steadily expanding the size of the middle-income group, we have promoted the formation of an olive-shaped pattern of distribution and ensured that personal incomes generally grow in step with economic growth and that rural income grows faster than urban income.
- Adhering to the principle that housing is for living in and not for speculation, we have moved faster to build a housing system with multiple types of suppliers and support channels that encourages both renting and buying, and increased investment in the construction of government-subsidized housing. All this has led to significant improvements in urban and rural housing conditions.
- China faces increasingly grave problems in the form of tightening environmental and resource constraints and ecological degradation. In particular, environmental pollution and ecological damage of various kinds are becoming increasingly commonplace, impairing our country's development and people's wellbeing. We will pay an extremely heavy price unless we reverse the trend of ecological and environmental deterioration as soon as possible. The Central Committee has emphasized that ecological conservation is of vital importance for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation. To protect the environment is to protect the productive forces, and to improve the environment is to boost the productive forces. We must never sacrifice the environment in exchange for transient economic growth. We must stay true to the principle that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets… We must act with greater resolve to promote green, circular, and low-carbon development, and adhere to a model of sustainable development featuring increased production, higher living standards, and healthy ecosystems.
ОБОРОНА И НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ
- In the new era, China is faced with more acute national security challenges, as evidenced by unprecedented external pressure, intertwined traditional and nontraditional security threats, and frequent "black swan" and "grey rhino" events. China's ability to safeguard national security falls short of what is required of us by the current circumstances and tasks. We need to strengthen our capacity for responding to various major risks, and improve mechanisms for coordinating efforts to safeguard national security.
- The Central Committee is acutely aware that, confronted with various types of external encirclement, suppression, disruption, and subversion, we must not be misguided or intimidated, and we must fight to the end with any forces that would attempt to subvert the leadership of the Communist Party of China and China's socialist system, or to hinder or obstruct China's advance toward national rejuvenation. Constant concessions will only invite more bullying and humiliation.
- Comrade Xi Jinping has stressed that our Party should make national security its top priority. He has put forward a holistic approach to national security, which covers political, military, homeland security, economic, cultural, social, technological, cyberspace, ecological, resource, nuclear, overseas interests, outer space, deep sea, polar, and biological security issues, among others. He has urged all Party members to enhance their fighting spirit and fighting capacity and to fulfill their responsibilities for guarding against and defusing various risks as they exercise leadership and carry out their work.
- To build strong people's armed forces, it is of paramount importance to uphold the fundamental principle and system of absolute Party leadership over the military, to ensure that supreme leadership and command authority rest with the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission (CMC), and to fully enforce the system of the CMC chairman assuming overall responsibility. For a period of time, the Party's leadership over the military was obviously lacking. If this problem had not been completely solved, it would not only have diminished the military's combat capacity, but also undermined the key political principle that the Party commands the gun.
- At the conference on military political work in 2014 in Gutian, Fujian Province, a plan was unveiled for enhancing the political loyalty of the armed forces in the new era, restoring and carrying on the proud traditions and fine conduct of the Party and the military, and improving political work through rectification. An all-around push was made to strengthen the Party's leadership and Party building, improve Party conduct, build integrity, and fight corruption in the military.
- Resolving the Taiwan question and realizing China's complete reunification is a historic mission and an unshakable commitment of the Party… For realizing China's complete reunification, time and momentum are always on our side… China's complete reunification will become a reality.
- The time in which the Chinese nation could be bullied and abused was gone and would never return.
- We have accelerated work to strengthen our international communication capacity, with the goal of telling well China's stories and the Party's stories, making China's voice heard, and promoting exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations. Our cultural soft power and the appeal of Chinese culture have increased significantly.
- The Party has led the people in pioneering a uniquely Chinese path to modernization, creating a new model for human advancement, and expanding the channels for developing countries to achieve modernization. This has offered a new option for countries and nations who want to accelerate development while preserving their independence.
- The Party has stayed in constant touch with more than 500 political parties and political organizations around the world with the aim of deepening exchanges and cooperation between parties. Adapting to the growing new momentum in "going global," we have steadily improved systems for protecting China's overseas interests and effectively handled many risks and challenges in this regard.
- China has upheld and practiced true multilateralism, resolutely opposed unilateralism, protectionism, hegemonism, and power politics, and worked actively to make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced, and beneficial for all.
- Through continued efforts, we have advanced major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics on all fronts... These efforts have resulted in a marked increase in China's international influence, appeal, and power to shape.
- We will never rely on others, take advantage of others, or seek hegemony.